In chemistry,pH is a measure of the acidity or basicity of anaqueous solution. Solutions with a pH less than 7 are said to be acidic and solutions with a pH greater than 7 are basic or alkaline. Pure water has a pH very close to 7. The pH scale is traceable to a set of standard solutions whose pH is established by international agreement. Primary pH standard values are determined using a concentration cell with transference, by measuring the potential difference between a hydrogen electrode and a standard electrode such as the silver chloride electrode. Measurement of pH for aqueous solutions can be done with a glass electrode and a pH meter, or using indicators. The PH measurements are important in medicine, biology, chemistry, agriculture, forestry, food science, environmental science, oceanography, civil engineering, chemical engineering, nutrition, water treatment & water purification, and many other applications. In technical terms, pH is the negative logarithm of the activity of the (solvated) hydronium ion, more often expressed as the measure of the hydronium ion concentration.
Because paper is composed of a randomly felted layer of fibre, it follows that the structure has a varying degree of porosity. Thus, the ability of fluids, both liquid and gaseous, to penetrate the structure of paper becomes a property that is both highly significant to the use of paper. Paper is a highly porous material and contains as such as 70% air. Porosity is a highly critical factor in Printing Papers Laminating Paper, Filter Paper, Cigarette Paper. Bag Paper, Antitarnish Paper and Label Paper. Porosity is the measurement of the total connecting air voids, both vertical and horizontal, that exists in a sheet. Porosity of sheet is an indication of absorptivity or the ability of the sheets to accept ink or water. Porosity can also be a factor in a vacuum feeding operation on a printing press.
Sizing / Cobb
Because paper is composed of a randomly felted layer of fibre, it’s structure has a varying degree of porosity. Thus, the ability of fluids, both liquid and gaseous, to penetrate the structure of paper becomes a property that is both highly significant to the use of paper. The need to limit the spreading of ink resulted in “sizing” the paper with gelatinous vegetable materials which had the effect of sealing or filling the surface pores. Later, the term “sizing” was applied to the treatment of paper stock prior to the formation of the sheet, with water-repellent materials such as rosin or wax. Resistance towards the penetration of aqueous solution / water is measured by Sizing or Cobb values.
Smoothness is concerned with the surface contour of paper. It is the flatness of the surface under testing conditions which considers roughness, liveliness, and compressibility. In most of the uses of paper, the character of the surface is of great importance. It is common to say that paper has a “smooth” or a “rough” texture. The terms “finish” and “pattern” are frequently used in describing the contour or appearance of paper surfaces. Smoothness in important for writing, where it affects the ease of travel of the pen over the paper surface. Finish is important in bag paper as it is related to the tendency of the bag to slide when stacked. Smoothness of the paper will often determine whether or not it can be successfully printed. Smoothness also gives eye appeal as a rough paper is unattractive.
Stiffness is the measure of force required to bend a paper through a specified angle. Stiffness is an important property for box boards, corrugating medium and to certain extent for printing papers also. A limpy and flimsy paper can cause feeding and delivery problems in larger sheet presses. A sheet that is too stiff will cause problems in copier machines where it must traverse over, under, and around feed rollers. Bond papers also require certain stiffness to be flat in typewriters etc.